LED light principle

by:Leimove     2019-01-03

Keyword: LED light

LED light principle

1 lamp bead structure

The most important light-emitting structure of an LED (Light Emitting Diode) lamp is a lamp-like lamp bead in the lamp. Although it is small in size, it has its own strengths.

After the LED lamp bead structure is enlarged, a wafer having a shape like a sesame is found.

LED lamp bead microstructure

This wafer structure is extremely complicated and is divided into several layers: the uppermost layer is called a P-type semiconductor layer, the middle layer is a light-emitting layer, and the lowermost layer is called an N-type semiconductor layer.

So, how is the light of the LED emitted?

2 principle of illumination

From a physics point of view: when a current passes through a wafer, electrons in the N-type semiconductor collide with holes in the P-type semiconductor to form a photon in the luminescent layer, and emit energy in the form of photons (ie, the light that everyone sees). .


LEDs, also known as light-emitting diodes, are small and fragile and are not convenient for direct use. The designer then added a protective casing to it and sealed it, which made it easy to use LED beads.

After a lot of LED beads are joined together, a variety of LED lights can be constructed.

Light cup type LED light

3 different color LED lights

Semiconductors of different materials produce different colors of light, such as red, green, blue, and so on. However, to date, no semiconductor material has been able to emit white light.

But how do the white LED beads we usually use?

4 white LED light generation

Here you need to mention a Nobel Prize winner - Dr. Nakamura Shuji. He invented the blue LED, which also laid a foundation for white LED. Based on this significant contribution, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2014.

Shuji Nakamur

As for how the blue LED is converted into a white LED, the biggest reason is that there is an extra layer of phosphor in the wafer.

In this figure, not only the N-type semiconductor layer, the P-type semiconductor layer, and the light-emitting layer described above but also a layer of 'phosphor coating' are added.

The basic principle of luminescence does not change much: between two layers of semiconductors, electrons collide with holes and produce blue photons in the luminescent layer.

A portion of the generated blue light is emitted directly through the fluorescent coating; the remaining portion is applied to the fluorescent coating and acts to produce yellow photons. The blue photon interacts with the yellow photon (mixed) to produce white light.

The figure above is the spectral curve of an LED: it can be seen that the peak of the blue light is at a wavelength of 450 nm, and then the slightly lower peak is the peak of the yellow light produced by the absorption of blue light by the phosphor.

If the proportion of blue light is a little more, white light of high color temperature is generated; on the contrary, if the proportion of yellow light is a little more, white light with lower color temperature is generated.

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